Thursday, November 1, 2018

CPT 82310, 84590, 82725, 86353, 88348 - Calcium, Vitamin A procedurces


Code Description CPT

82310 Calcium; total
82725 Fatty acids, nonesterified
84590 Vitamin A
84591 Vitamin, not otherwise specified
84999 Unlisted chemistry procedure
86353 Lymphocyte transformation, mitogen (phytomitogen) or antigen induced blastogenesis
88348 Electron microscopy, diagnostic


Introduction
Micronutrients are essential vitamins and minerals. Getting enough of them is important for good health. It’s rare in the United States to have medical conditions caused by lack of nutrients like vitamins A, B1, B12, C, and D, and selenium. Most people get enough vitamins and minerals through their diet or over-the-counter vitamins. Blood samples are a proven way to measure the level of essential nutrients. Other tests have been created that look at nutrient levels inside cells.

These tests are unproven. There are no published medical studies showing whether the cell tests are more accurate or useful than standard blood tests at measuring levels of vitamins or minerals. There are also no randomized controlled trials — studies that randomly put people in different study groups — exploring whether the cell tests are effective to screen for or diagnose nutrient deficiencies.

Note: The Introduction section is for your general knowledge and is not to be taken as policy coverage criteria. The rest of the policy uses specific words and concepts familiar to medical professionals. It is intended for providers. A provider can be a person, such as a doctor, nurse, psychologist, or dentist. A provider also can be a place where medical care is given, like a hospital, clinic, or lab. This policy informs them about when a service may be covered.



When reviewing intracellular micronutrient panel testing, the entire panel is to be reviewed as a whole versus the individual elements of the panel.

Reference Laboratories (see Benefit Application)
IntraCellular Diagnostics
IntraCellular Diagnostics uses electron microscopy for which CPT code 88348 might be reported.

SpectraCell Laboratories

According to SpectraCell Laboratories, their total antioxidant function testing (SPECTROX®) is reported using CPT code 86353.

Benefit Application

This testing is currently only available through two reference laboratories: SpectraCell Laboratories (Houston, TX) and IntraCellular Diagnostics (Medford, OR).

Evidence Review Description

Commercial laboratories offer panels of tests evaluating intracellular levels of micronutrients (essential vitamins and minerals). Potential uses of these tests include screening for nutritional deficiencies in healthy people or those with chronic disease and aiding in the diagnosis of disease in patients with nonspecific symptoms.
Background

Vitamin Deficiencies

“Micronutrients” collectively refer to essential vitamins minerals necessary in trace amounts for health. Clinical deficiency states (states occurring after prolonged consumption of a diet lacking the nutrient and is treated by adding the nutrient to the diet) have been reported for vitamins A, B1, B12, C, and D, selenium, and other micronutrients. Classic nutritional deficiency diseases are uncommon in the United States; most people derive sufficient nutrition from their diets alone or in combination with over-the-counter multivitamins. Laboratory tests are available for individual micronutrients and are generally used to confirm suspected micronutrient deficiencies. Testing is performed by serum analysis using standardized

values for defining normal and deficient states. In addition, some commercial laboratories offer panels of vitamin and mineral testing that also use serum analysis.

Diagnostic Testing

This policy evaluates novel laboratory tests that measure the intracellular levels of micronutrients. This testing, also known as intracellular micronutrient analysis, micronutrient testing or functional intracellular analysis is claimed to be superior to serum testing because intracellular levels reflect more stable micronutrient levels over longer time periods than serum levels and because intracellular levels are not influenced by recent nutrition intake. However, the relation between serum and intracellular levels of micronutrients is complex. The balance of intra- and extracellular levels depends on a number of factors, including the physiology of cellular transport mechanisms and the individual cell type.

At least 2 commercial laboratories offer intracellular testing for micronutrients. Laboratories perform a panel of tests evaluating the intracellular level of a variety of micronutrients (eg, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids). The test offered by IntraCellular Diagnostics evaluates epithelial cells from buccal swabs and assesses levels of intracellular mineral electrolyte (ie, magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium, chloride). SpectraCell Laboratories offers a panel of tests that evaluates the intracellular status of micronutrients within lymphocytes in blood samples. The micronutrients measured by the test include:

* Vitamins: A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, D, K; biotin, folate, pantothenic acid
* Minerals: calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper
* Antioxidants: alpha lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, cysteine, glutathione, selenium, vitamin E
* Amino acids: asparagine, glutamine, serine
* Carbohydrate metabolism: chromium, fructose sensitivity, glucose-insulin metabolism
* Fatty acids: oleic acid
* Metabolites: choline, inositol, carnitine

The SpectraCell micronutrient panel also includes an evaluation of total antioxidant function.

Summary of Evidence

For individuals who have chronic diseases or nonspecific generalized symptoms who receive intracellular micronutrient analysis, the evidence includes observational studies. Relevant  outcomes are test accuracy, symptoms, and change in disease status. No studies were identified that evaluated clinical validity or clinical utility of intracellular micronutrient testing compared with standard testing for vitamin or mineral levels. Limited data from observational studies are available on correlations between serum and intracellular micronutrient levels. No randomized controlled trials or other comparative studies were identified evaluating the direct health impact of intracellular micronutrient testing. Moreover, there are insufficient data to construct a chain of evidence that intracellular micronutrient testing would likely lead to identifying patients whose health outcomes would be improved compared with alternative approaches to patient management. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.

Ongoing snd Unpublished Clinical Trials

A search of ClinicalTrials.gov in January 2018 did not identify any ongoing or unpublished trials that would likely influence this review. Practice Guidelines and Position Statements No guidelines or statements were identified.

Medicare National Coverage

There is no national coverage determination (NCD). In the absence of an NCD, coverage decisions are left to the discretion of local Medicare carriers.

Monday, August 20, 2018

Visit payment and Episode claiming

VISIT PAYMENT POLICIES AND THE TRANSITION OF EPISODE CLAIMING:

A “visit” is defined as a unit of service consisting of all the APG services preformed for a patient that are coded on the same claim and share a common date of service. There may be multiple APGs associated with a visit, depending on the services provided. Upon initial APG implementation (Dec. 2008), the “visit” was the basic unit for payment.

As of July 1, 2009, for hospitals, most ancillary laboratory or radiology services associated with a medical visit and/or a significant procedure billed under the APG payment methodology became the fiscal responsibility of the APG provider and had to be included on the APG claim, even if the ancillary services were provided by outside vendors or on different dates of service. This ancillary policy will also apply to D&TCs prospectively effective January 1, 2011. Consistent with this change, new rate codes were issued for hospital OPDs and will be issued for DT&C clinics which enable the APG Grouper/Pricer to recognize an “episode” of care. An “episode” is defined as a unit of service consisting of all services on a claim, regardless of the coded dates of service. Under episode billing an episode shall consist of all medical visits and or procedures that are provided by a clinic to a patient on a single date of service plus any associated non-carved out ancillary laboratory or radiology services, regardless of the date of service of those ancillaries. Under episode claiming, multiple episodes should not be coded on the same claim or the payment could be subject to excessive packaging, consolidating, and/or discounting.

For emergency departments, the significant procedures and/or medical visits comprising the non-carved out ancillary services portion of an episode need not be on a single date of service and may instead be on consecutive dates of service.

USE OF VISIT AND EPISODE RATE CODES:

The EAPG Grouper/Pricer is programmed to use two grouping mechanisms for billing purposes. The “visit” grouping mechanism applies APG packaging, consolidation, and discounting to all services on a claim with the same date of service. With visit billing there can be more than one visit on the claim and each visit will process separately through the grouper/pricer based on the coded dates of service. The “episode” grouping mechanism applies APG packaging, consolidation, and discounting to all services on a claim regardless of the date of service.

Therefore, on an episode claim there can be only one visit/episode on the claim and date of service is ignored by the grouper/pricer.

Visit Rate Codes and Ancillaries: When using visit rate codes to claim for a visit, all associated ancillary or radiology services must be reported on the same claim as the medical visit or significant procedure that generated the ancillary service. For claiming purposes, providers must reassign the dates of ancillary lab or radiology services to correspond with the date of the medical visit or significant procedure that generated the ancillary service. If the dates of the ancillaries are not reassigned, it is likely that they will be viewed by the grouper/pricer as “if stand alone, do not pay procedures” and no payment will be made. To avoid the reassignment of dates that can be necessary under visit claiming, NYS DOH implemented the episode claiming option, whereunder correct dates of service can be coded for the ancillaries and they will still group with, and be paid with, the relevant/associated medical visit or significant procedure. While multiple visits may be reported on the same claim when using visit rate codes, the Grouper/ Pricer will apply the APG grouping logic to all services and procedures with the same date of service.

All services and procedures provided to a patient with the same date of service and rate code (based on servicing provider type – i.e. OPD, Ambulatory Surgery Center, ED, and D&TC) must be billed together on one claim. If two claims are submitted for the same patient with the same rate code, same date of service, and same provider (hospital or D&TC), only the first claim submitted will result in payment. The second claim will be denied. If a patient returns to the clinic for multiple visits on the same date of service, all the procedures must be billed on one claim with the appropriate APG rate code (1400 for hospital OPDs or 1407 for DTCs). If the provider attempts to submit multiple APG claims for that rate code for the same recipient/same date of service, only one claim will be paid.

All others will be denied as duplicative claims. If a patient is initially seen in the hospital emergency room and the visit ultimately results in the provision of a same-day ambulatory surgery service outside of the emergency room, the hospital should bill the visit only under the ambulatory surgery rate code. Episode Rate Codes: As described above, for purposes of APG reimbursement an “episode of care consists of a medical visit and/or significant procedure that occurred on a single date of service and all the associated ancillary laboratory or radiology services that occurred on or after the date of the medical visit or significant procedure. When using an episode rate code to claim for an episode of care, providers must include a “from” and “to” date in the claim header to reflect the episode of care as well as specific dates at the line level for each service provided as part of the “episode of care.

All procedure codes related to an episode of care should be reported on a single claim with their actual dates of service. This includes the medical visit and or procedures that occurred on a single date of service and all associated ancillary laboratory or radiology services on or after the medical visit or significant procedure, regardless of the provider or date of service. When using an episode rate code, the Grouper/Pricer will apply the APG grouping logic to all services and procedures on the claim, regardless of the dates of service. If procedures from two different episodes of care are coded on the same claim, unwarranted discounting or consolidation may occur, resulting in underpayment to the APG biller.

As with use of the visit rate code, if two claims are submitted by the same APG provider for the same patient, using the same episode rate code and the same “from” date for the episode of care, only the first claim submitted will result in payment. The second claim will be denied.

Note: Implementation of the ancillary billing policy described above will be delayed for DTCs until January 1, 2011.

Therefore, upon implementation of APGs in DTCs through December 31, 2010, ancillary laboratory and radiology services which have historically been referred by DTCs to outside providers or vendors may continue to be billed directly to EMedNY by the ancillary service provider using the appropriate Medicaid fee schedule. During this time period, these ancillary services are not the financial responsibility of the DTC and should not be reported on the

APG claim. However, any ancillary laboratory or radiology service provided directly by the DTC clinic or historically included in the clinic’s former threshold or specialty (e.g. as with former PCAP rate codes) payment should be reported on the APG claim, even those that map to “a never pay APG” or an “if stand alone do not pay APG.”. The ancillary billing policy will be implemented prospectively in DTCs, effective January 1, 2011. Additional guidance on the ancillary billing policy will be issued at that time. In the interim, see Section 4.4 for more information on the APG ancillary billing policy.


APG billers assigned episode rate codes (hospital OPDs, D&TCs, and SBHCs) are expected to use episode rate codes for all claims effective January 1, 2011, except when billing for Medicare/Medicaid dual eligibles or for services routinely billed on a monthly basis. In the interim, APG billers may use either the appropriate visit based rate codes (1400, 1407,1435) or the appropriate new episode of care rate codes( 1432, 1422,1425). After January 1, 2011, visit based rated codes may only be used for claims for Medicare/Medicaid dually eligible patients or for services that are billed for a patient on a monthly basis. The SDOH strongly encourages providers to use episode rate codes as episode rate codes enable more accurate reporting with respect to the date of ancillary lab and radiology services and, when used properly, episode rate codes will always result in as much or more payment than use of a visit rate code for the same bundle of services.

UNITS OF SERVICE:

Generally, the APG reimbursement system does not recognize units of service. However, effective January 1, 2010, providers may bill multiple units of service for a limited group of procedures including physical andoccupational therapy. Additional units-based procedures include nutrition counseling (e.g., CPT 97802 medical nutrition, indiv., 15 min.), crisis management (e.g., CPT H2011 crisis intervention service, 15 min.), patient education including diabetes and asthma self management services rendered by CDEs & CAEs , and health/behavioral assessments (e.g., CPT 96150 assess health behavior, initial).

Providers should not code multiple lines on a single claim with the same HCPCS code (except for dental procedures such as multiple teeth sealed, multiple fillings, etc. – see section 4.2) to signify the provision of multiple units of a single procedure/service. Rather, they should include the HCPCS code on one line along with the number of units of the service provided on that same line. For physician administered drugs and all other services billed in multiple units, providers should bill for each drug  or service on a single claim line and identify the units provided on that line. Drug APGs are set to pay for the average units billed for each APG. Generally drugs are grouped into APGs based on the costs of a typical dosage. When multiple immunizations are rendered on the same date of service, the APG claim should include multiple codes for the administration of vaccine. The first administration code will pay at 100%; subsequent codes will be discounted at 50%.

For a complete list of units-based procedures and their respective unit maximums, please
visit: http://www.nyhealth.gov/health_care/medicaid/rates/apg/docs/units_based_procedures.pdf.

3.7 EMERGENCY ROOM – EPISODE OF CARE
:

If a patient enters the Emergency Department (ED) before midnight and leaves after midnight, the Grouper/Pricer  will treat the ED visit as a single episode of care. A single claim should be filed for each ED visit (episode of care) and the actual dates of service for each procedure should be reported on the claim. All ED services should be billed using the ED rate code, 1402.

3.9 UTILIZATION THRESHOLDS:

The Utilization Threshold Program continues to apply to clinic services billed as visits or episodes of care under APGs. Under the Utilization Threshold Program, it is necessary for clinic providers to obtain an authorization from the Medicaid Eligibility Verification System (MEVS) to render services to Medicaid patients. This authorization to render services will be given unless a recipient has reached his/her utilization threshold limit. If the individual’s threshold has been reached, the clinic physician must submit a “Threshold Override Application” (TOA) in order to obtain approval for the additional services.

The Utilization Threshold Program has been revised to provide individual thresholds, which are refreshed quarterly, for every Medicaid recipient based on their health risk status. These new thresholds will be implemented in 2009. Notification of these changes will be forthcoming in a Medicaid Update article. As of March 1, 2010, revised TOA forms must be used. These forms may be obtained by calling the eMedNY call center at (800) 343-9000. The Utilization Threshold Guide is available online at: www.emedny.org/HIPAA/provider_training/training.html.

3.10 REMITTANCE:

The 835 remittance will include line level detail including the APG code, APG full weight, APG allowed percentage, APG paid amount, the payment based on existing operating reimbursement (the blend amount), “combined with CPT” (if reimbursement for a particular CPT/APG has been consolidated or packaged within another CPT/APG, this field indicates the CPT/APG to which payment has been consolidated/packaged), capital add-on amount, and the total payment for the claim. The 835 Companion Guide, which provides detail for all the APG remittance changes, is now available on the www.eMedNY.org website under NYHIPAADESK.

Wednesday, May 9, 2018

Billing guideline for resident physicians, locum tenens provider

SERVICES PROVIDED BY NON-PHYSICIANS AND RESIDENT PHYSICIANS

A. All non-physicians, who are defined as eligible providers under the member’s BCBSKS contract and who are providing services as defined in their Kansas licensure or certification, shall bill their charges to BCBSKS under their own National Provider Identifier (NPI) or specific performing provider number, if applicable. The name of the ordering provider, when applicable, (including NPI, except when exempt by law) must appear on every claim.

B. A physician may bill for the services of a licensed nurse, other than an APRN, if there is an employer/employee relationship and the services are supervised by the physician (supervision means the patient recognizes the supervising physician as his/her physician and there is a periodic review of the records by the physician). These services must be an integral part of the physician's professional service, included in the physician's bill, and be of the type that are commonly furnished in the physician's office or clinic.

C. Independently practicing Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) who are providing services as defined in their Kansas licensure or certification, shall bill their charges to BCBSKS under their own NPI or specific performing provider number. The name of the ordering provider, when applicable, (including NPI, except when exempt by law) must appear on every claim.

D. Services of a Resident Physician are billed under the attending Faculty Physician’s NPI or specific performing provider number if done in connection with the Residency Program.

E. If the Resident Physician is providing services outside of the Residency Program, all Blue Shield Policy Memos apply and services shall be billed under his/her own NPI or specific performing provider number.

F. BCBSKS will not pay for any services performed and billed by an independent provider who does not meet applicable state or national licensure registration or certification requirements to perform that service or who is not defined as an eligible provider in the member’s contract.

G. BCBSKS will not pay for outpatient services connected with a nervous and mental diagnosis when provided by an unlicensed provider, or a licensed provider with a licensure other than designated in the member’s contract as eligible to provide nervous and mental benefits. Supervision of an unlicensed provider, a licensed counselor, or one not designated as eligible in the member’s contract does not constitute a service being rendered by an eligible provider. The exception to this would be if the service was rendered through a state licensed alcohol or drug abuse treatment facility, a hospital, psychiatric hospital, or a community mental health center. Eligible non-physician psychiatric providers include APRNs, certified psychologists, licensed specialist clinical social workers, licensed clinical marriage and family therapists, licensed clinical professional counselors, and licensed clinical psychotherapists.

XIX. LOCUM TENENS PROVIDER

In situations in which the regular provider is unavailable, a locum tenens can be used to provide a visit/service. The locum tenens must be the same type of provider as for whom the locum is substituting (for example, a physician can only authorize another physician as a locum tenens, an APRN/PA can only authorize another APRN/PA, etc.) and the locum tenens must be licensed in Kansas and only perform within his/her scope of license. The locum tenens must not provide services during a continuous period of longer than 60 days. For situations extending beyond 60 days, BCBSKS must be contacted to discuss billing arrangements.

In billing for services provided by a locum tenens, the claim must be filed using the NPI or specific performing provider number of the provider for whom the locum tenens is substituting and a Q6 modifier must be used. In addition, the medical record must indicate the services were provided by a locum tenens.

Monday, January 8, 2018

Enteral Nutrition Billing Guide


ENTERAL NUTRITION

Enteral nutrition is nutrition administered by tube or orally into the gastrointestinal tract. Enteral nutrition is classified into categories that possess similar characteristics. Categories for enteral nutrition are listed by HCPCS codes on the MDHHS Medical Supplier/DME/Prosthetics and Orthotics Fee Schedule on the MDHHS website. For the appropriate HCPCS code, products are listed on the enteral nutrition product classification list on the website for the Medicare Pricing, Data Analysis and Coding (PDAC) contractor. If the formula is not listed in the covered HCPCS codes, the provider must contact the PDAC contractor for a coding determination. (Refer to the Directory Appendix for website and contact information.)



ENTERAL NUTRITION (ADMINISTERED ORALLY)

Standards of Coverage

Enteral nutrition (administered orally) may be covered for beneficiaries under the age of 21 when:

* A chronic medical condition exists resulting in nutritional deficiencies, and a threemonth trial is required to prevent gastric tube placement; or

* Supplementation to regular diet or meal replacement is required, and the beneficiary's weight-to-height ratio has fallen below the fifth percentile on standard growth grids; or

* Physician documentation details low percentage increase in growth pattern or trend directly related to the nutritional intake and associated diagnosis/medical condition.

For CSHCS coverage, a nutritionist or appropriate pediatric subspecialist must indicate that long-term enteral supplementation is required to eliminate serious impact on growth and development.

For Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code B4162, the beneficiary must have a specified inherited disease of metabolism identified by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).


For beneficiaries age 21 and over:

* The beneficiary must have a medical condition that requires the unique composition of the formula nutrients that the beneficiary is unable to obtain from food; or

* The nutritional composition of the formula represents an integral part of treatment of the specified diagnosis/medical condition; or

* The beneficiary has experienced significant weight loss. For Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code B4157, the beneficiary must have a specified inherited disease of metabolism identified by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

Documentation Documentation must be less than 30 days old and include:

* Specific diagnosis/medical condition related to the beneficiary's inability to take or eat food.

* Duration of need.

* Amount of calories needed per day.

* Current height and weight, as well as change over time. (For beneficiaries under 21, weight-to-height ratio.)

* Specific prescription identifying levels of individual nutrient(s) that is required in increased or restricted amounts.

* List of economic alternatives that have been tried.

For continued use beyond 3-6 months, the CSHCS Program requires a report from a nutritionist or appropriate pediatric subspecialist.


PA Requirements PA is required for all enteral formula for oral administration.

The following HCPCS codes require authorization via a telephone authorization process:

B4034 B4035 B4036 B4081 B4082 B4083 B4087 B4088 B4102 B4149 B4150 B4152 B4153 B4154 B4155 B4157 B4158 B4159 B4160 B4161 B4162 B9000 B9002 B9998

Refer to the Directory Appendix for Telephone Prior Authorization Contractor information.


ENTERAL NUTRITION (ADMINISTERED BY TUBE)

Standards of Coverage

Enteral formula are covered when the diagnosis/medical condition requires placement of a gastric tube and nutrition is administered by syringe, gravity, or pump.

Documentation Documentation must be less than 30 days old and include:

* Specific diagnosis/medical condition requiring tube feeding.

* Duration of treatment.

* Amount needed per day.

* If a pump is required, the medical reason why syringe or gravity method could not be used.

PA Requirements PA is not required for standard formula for enteral tube feedings provided up to the program's established quantity limits per month. (Applies only to specific enteral formula and related supplies and equipment. Refer to the Medicaid Code and Rate Reference tool for additional information.)

PA is required for the following:

* All specialized enteral formula requests for tube feedings.

* Over-quantity requests for standard formula enteral tube feedings.

* Medical need beyond Standards of Coverage.

The following HCPCS codes require authorization via a telephone authorization process:

B4034 B4035 B4036 B4081 B4082 B4083 B4087 B4088 B4102 B4149 B4150 B4152 B4153 B4154 B4155 B4157 B4158 B4159 B4160 B4161 B4162 B9000 B9002 B9998

Refer to the Directory Appendix for Telephone Prior Authorization Contractor information.



ENTERAL NUTRITION PAYMENT RULES

When billing for enteral formula (administered orally or by tube), the appropriate formula HCPCS code should be billed on a monthly basis with total calories used (divided by 100) as the unit amount. (To calculate the appropriate number of caloric units, combine total calories of all cans to be used and divide by 100.) Medicaid will reimburse for a maximum quantity of up to 900 units for any combination of approved formula.

Providers should refer to the following chart for additional assistance:

Formula 100 calories = 1 unit (u) 6 (8 oz) cans a day

1 month = 30 days

6 months = 180 days

5.00 cost/8 oz liquid or packet or can Standard @ 250 calories/8 oz 250 cals/100 =2.5 units 2.5 u x 6 = 15 units a day
15 u x 30 = 450 units a month 15 u x 180=2700 units for 6 months $5.00 ÷ 2.5 u = $2.00 per unit Caloric Dense @ 355
calories/8 oz 355 cals/100 =3.55 units 3.55 u x 6= 21 units a day 21 u x 30 = 630 units a month 21 u x 180 =
3780 units for 6 months $5.00 ÷ 3.55 u = $1.41 per unit Powder, 1 package = 150 calories 150 cals/ 100
= 1.5 units 1.5 u x 6 = 9  nits a day 9 u x 30 = 270 units a month 9 u x 180 =1620 units for 6 months $5.00 ÷ 1.5 u =
$3.33 per unit Powder, 1# can = 112 oz when mixed @ 20 calories/oz* = 2240 calories for the entire can

(*can vary with physician orders) 2240 cals/100 = 22.4 units 6 cans per month = 22.4 u x 6 = 134 units a month 134 u x 6 months = 804 units for 6 months $5.00 ÷ 22.4 u = $0.30 per unit

The necessary equipment and supply code for enteral tube feedings should be billed up to specified quantity limits. Feeding bags, anchoring devices, syringes, drain sponges, cotton tip applicators, tape, adaptors, and connectors used in conjunction with a gastrostomy or enterostomy tube are included in the supply kit codes and should not be billed separately.

Dietary formula for oral feedings may be obtained from either a medical supplier or a pharmacy.

Dietary formula for tube feedings are covered only through the medical supplier.

Tuesday, December 26, 2017

CPT 36251, 36252, 36253, 36254 - selective catheter placement

Procedure code and Description

36251 Selective catheter placement (first-order), main renal artery and any accessory renal artery(s) for renal angiography, including arterial puncture and catheter placement(s), fluoroscopy, contrast injection(s), image postprocessing, permanent recording of images, and radiological supervision and interpretation, including pressure gradient measurements when performed, and flush aortogram when performed; unilateral

36252 Selective catheter placement (first-order), main renal artery and any accessory renal artery(s) for renal angiography, including arterial puncture and catheter placement(s), fluoroscopy, contrast injection(s), image postprocessing, permanent recording of images, and radiological supervision and interpretation, including pressure gradient measurements when performed, and flush aortogram when performed; bilateral

36253 Superselective catheter placement (one or more second order or higher renal artery branches) renal artery and any accessory renal artery(s) for renal angiography, including arterial puncture, catheterization, fluoroscopy, contrast injection(s), image postprocessing, permanent recording of images, and radiological supervision and interpretation, including pressure gradient measurements when performed, and flush aortogram when performed; unilateral

36254 Superselective catheter placement (one or more second order or higher renal artery branches) renal artery and any accessory renal artery(s) for renal angiography, including arterial puncture, catheterization, fluoroscopy, contrast injection(s), image postprocessing, permanent recording of images, and radiological supervision and interpretation, including pressure gradient measurements when performed, and flush aortogram when performed; bilateral.


Catheter-based renal angiography, the longstanding “gold standard” for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis  (RAS), has been largely replaced as a practical first-line modality by noninvasive imaging studies (e.g., duplex ultrasonography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computed tomographic angiography (CTA)). Renal angiography services will be denied without a prior non-invasive renal artery study that is inconclusive or unavailable. Exceptions to this rule may occur in patients with fibromuscular dysplasia or renal artery aneurysms where there may be branch involvement.

Routine non-selective renal angiography, pejoratively called “drive-by angiography,” performed at the time of cardiac catheterization in the absence of accepted clinical indications that support medical necessity, as mentioned in this LCD, will be denied as such services are generally not indicated. In addition, the treating physician must specifically request this extra-cardiac angiographic service. A provider should not report CPT codes 36251, 36252, 36253 and 36254 (renal angiography, selective) unless the renal artery(s) is (are) catheterized and a complete renal angiogram, including the venous phase, is performed and interpreted.

There are no absolute contraindications to diagnostic aortography/angiography. Relative contraindications include but are not limited to:

A. Severe hypertension
B. Uncorrectable coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia
C. Clinically significant sensitivity to iodinated contrast material
D. Renal insufficiency based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
E. Congestive heart failure
F. Certain connective tissue disorders which may indicate increased risk for complications at the puncture site

Diagnostic angiography performed at a separate session from an interventional procedure may be separately reportable. If a diagnostic angiogram was performed prior to an interventional procedure, a second diagnostic angiogram performed at the time of an interventional procedure is separately reportable when documentation supports it is medically reasonable and necessary to repeat the study to further define the anatomy and pathology. If the prior diagnostic angiogram was performed, a second angiogram (e.g., for the contrast injections necessary to perform the interventional procedure) is not separately reportable.

The localization or guidance is integral to an interventional procedure and is not separately reportable unless CPT instructions specify otherwise.

In addition to the initial procedure, an appropriate frequency of repeat procedures can be allowed as long as medical necessity is clearly established and documented. It is expected that important diagnostic information will be obtained from the angiography, which will assist in patient management and treatment. Repeat angiography may be medically reasonable and necessary if there is documentation of new and incapacitating symptoms. CMS issued HCPCS code G0278 for femoral or iliac angiography when done at the time of coronary angiography. Medicare would not expect to see a high percentage of femoral or iliac angiography done at the same time of coronary studies, and such billing could be subject to review. Renal angiography performed at the time of cardiac catheterization in the absence of accepted clinical indication that support medical necessity will be denied as such services are generally not indicated, as mentioned in this LCD.

Monday, November 13, 2017

Extended Care services

The term “extended care services” means the following items and services furnished to an inpatient of a skilled nursing facility (SNF) either directly or under arrangements as noted in the list below:

• Nursing care provided by or under the supervision of a registered professional nurse;

• Bed and board in connection with furnishing of such nursing care;

• Physical or occupational therapy and/or speech-language pathology services furnished by the skilled nursing facility or by others under arrangements with them made by the facility;

• Medical social services;

• Such drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment, furnished for use in the skilled nursing facility, as are ordinarily furnished by such facility for the care and treatment of inpatients;

• Medical services provided by an intern or resident-in-training of a hospital with which the facility has in effect a transfer agreement (see §50.7) under an approved teaching program of the hospital, and other diagnostic or therapeutic services provided by a hospital with which the facility has such an agreement in effect, and

• Other services necessary to the health of the patients as are generally provided by skilled nursing facilities, or by others under arrangements.

Skilled Nursing Facility Level of Care - General

Care in a SNF is covered if all of the following four factors are met:

• The patient requires skilled nursing services or skilled rehabilitation services, i.e., services that must be performed by or under the supervision of professional or technical personnel (see §§30.2 - 30.4); are ordered by a physician and the services are rendered for a condition for which the patient received inpatient hospital services or for a condition that arose while receiving care in a SNF for a condition for which he received inpatient hospital services;

• The patient requires these skilled services on a daily basis (see §30.6); and

• As a practical matter, considering economy and efficiency, the daily skilled services can be provided only on an inpatient basis in a SNF. (See §30.7.)

• The services delivered are reasonable and necessary for the treatment of a patient’s illness or injury, i.e., are consistent with the nature and severity of the individual’s illness or injury, the individual’s particular medical needs, and accepted standards of medical practice. The services must also be reasonable in terms of duration and quantity.

If any one of these four factors is not met, a stay in a SNF, even though it might include the delivery of some skilled services, is not covered. For example, payment for a SNF level of care could not be made if a patient needs an intermittent rather than daily skilled service.

In reviewing claims for SNF services to determine whether the level of care requirements are met, the A/B MAC (A) first considers whether a patient needs skilled care. If a need for a skilled service does not exist, then the “daily” and “practical matter” requirements are not addressed. See section 30.2.2.1 for a discussion of the role of appropriate documentation in facilitating accurate coverage determinations for claims involving skilled care. Additional material on documentation appears in the various clinical scenarios that are presented throughout these level of care guidelines.

Coverage of nursing care and/or therapy to perform a maintenance program does not turn on the presence or absence of an individual’s potential for improvement from the nursing care and/or therapy, but rather on the beneficiary’s need for skilled care. Eligibility for SNF Medicare A coverage has not changed with the inception of PPS. However, the skilled criteria and the medical review process have changed slightly. For Medicare to render payment for skilled services provided to a beneficiary during a SNF Part A stay, the facility must complete an MDS.

EXAMPLE: Even though the irrigation of a suprapubic catheter may be a skilled nursing service, daily irrigation may not be “reasonable and necessary” for the treatment of a patient’s illness or injury.

A certification or recertification statement must be signed by the attending physician or a physician on the staff of the skilled nursing facility who has knowledge of the case, or by a physician extender (that is, a nurse practitioner (NP), a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) or, effective with items and services furnished on or after January 1, 2011, a physician assistant (PA)) who does not have a direct or indirect employment relationship with the facility, but who is working in collaboration with the physician.

In this context, the definition of a “direct employment relationship” is set forth in the regulations at 20 CFR 404.1005, 404.1007, and 404.1009. Under the regulations at 42 CFR 424.20(e)(2)(ii), when a physician extender has a direct employment relationship with an entity other than the facility, and the employing entity has an agreement with the facility that includes the provision of general nursing services under the regulations at 42 CFR 409.21, an “indirect employment relationship” exists between the physician extender and the facility. By contrast, such an indirect employment relationship does not exist if the agreement between the facility and the physician extender’s employer solely involves the performance of delegated physician tasks under the regulations at 42 CFR 483.40(e).

Patients covered under hospital insurance are entitled to have payment made on their behalf for covered extended care services. Payment may be based on reasonable cost or be under the SNF Prospective Payment System (see §10). The facility may charge the beneficiary for services they request that are not included in the PPS rate or otherwise covered by Medicare (i.e. extra meals for family members).

An inpatient is a person who has been admitted to a skilled nursing facility or swing bedhospital for bed occupancy for purposes of receiving inpatient services. A person is considered an inpatient if formally admitted as an inpatient with the expectation that they will remain at least overnight and occupy a bed even though it later develops that they can be discharged and do not actually use a bed overnight.

Physical Therapy, Speech-Language Pathology, and Occupational

Therapy Furnished by the Skilled Nursing Facility or by Others Under Arrangements With the Facility and Under Its Supervision

For Speech-Language Pathology, see Medicare Benefit Policy Manual, Chapter 1, “Inpatient Hospital Services,” §100. For Occupational Therapy, see Medicare Benefit Policy Manual, Chapter 1,"Inpatient Hospital Services,” §90.

Note these services must be provided by the SNF or by others under arrangements with the SNF for beneficiaries in either a covered Part A stay or a non-covered stay in the SNF. Bundling to the SNF is not required for beneficiaries residing in a non-certified portion of a facility containing a distinct part SNF if the facility as whole is not primarily engaged in the provision of skilled care

Drugs and Biologicals

Drugs and biologicals for use in the facility, which are ordinarily furnished by the facility for the care and treatment of inpatients, are covered. Such drugs and biologicals are not limited to those routinely stocked by the skilled nursing facility but include those obtained for the patient from an outside source, such as a pharmacy in the community. Drugs and biologicals are included in the SNF PPS except for those Part B drugs specifically excluded. Since the provision of drugs and biologicals is considered an essential part of skilled nursing care, a facility must assure their availability to inpatients

in order to be found capable of furnishing the level of care required for participation in the program. When a facility secures drugs and biologicals from an outside source, their availability is assured only if the facility assumes financial responsibility for the necessary drugs and biologicals, i.e., the supplier looks to the facility, not the patient, for payment.

The use of an operating room and any special equipment, supplies, or services would not constitute covered extended care services except when furnished to the facility by a hospital with which the facility has a transfer agreement, since operating rooms are not generally maintained by skilled nursing facilities. However, supplies and nursing services connected with minor surgery performed in a skilled nursing facility that does not require the use of an operating room or any special equipment or supplies associated with such a room would be covered extended care services and paid as part of inpatient SNF PPS.

Tuesday, October 31, 2017

Maternity care billing TIPS - Twins, physician changing

 MATERNITY CARE SERVICES

Coding CPT guidelines for reporting prenatal care and delivery services apply. Bill the global obstetrical package or the antepartum, delivery, and postpartum components as  appropriate per Medicaid NCCI guidelines.



Delivery Delivery is part of the global maternity package and should not be billed separately if the global package is billed. If the beneficiary is seen for fewer than seven antepartum visits, delivery and postpartum care should be billed separately. Use appropriate CPT guidelines.

Global Service The global maternity package should be billed if the beneficiary is seen for seven or more antepartum visits with delivery and postpartum performed by the same physician or physician group. The provider or group may choose to bill the antepartum, delivery, and postpartum components separately as allowed by Medicaid NCCI editing.

Multiple Gestation For twin gestation, report the service on two lines with no modifier on the first line and modifier 51 on the second line. If all maternity care was provided, report the global maternity package code for the first infant, and report the appropriate delivery-only code for the second infant using modifier 51. If multiple gestation for more than twins is encountered, report the first delivery on one line and combine all subsequent deliveries on the second line with modifiers 51 and 22. Provide information in the remarks section or submit an attachment to the claim explaining the number of babies delivered.


Physician Change During Antepartum Care

If the beneficiary changes physicians during the antepartum care (other than physicians within the same group), use the appropriate maternity CPT codes and guidelines for the services performed. The global package should not be billed by either physician regardless of the number of antepartum visits provided.

Postpartum Care Postpartum care is included in the global maternity package and in the global surgical delivery period when the services are provided by the same physician or physician group. When the postpartum exam is performed by a physician not billing the global package or performing the delivery, the postpartum exam may be billed as a separate service.

Prenatal/Antepartum Care

If the beneficiary receives fewer than seven but greater than three antepartum visits, use the appropriate antepartum CPT code. Individual E/M codes should be used when three or fewer antepartum visits are performed.

NEWBORN CARE

When billing for medical services provided to the newborn, providers must use the newborn's Medicaid ID number, except if the delivering physician performs the newborn care and circumcision during the mother's inpatient stay, the delivering physician may bill for the newborn care and circumcision on the same claim as the delivery under the mother's Medicaid ID number.

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